G. T. Hushion is a forensic historian. He was a research attorney from 1990 – 2010. This study of pi and geometric probability concerns randomness when measured in a series. Necessarily included is pi’s tortuous journey through the French Revolution.
While this author has no interest per se in gaming, the application of geometric probability is most readily understood through the gravitational reality of gaming and roulette has been used as the iconic image of randomness. To that end, gaming trials have been used to model randomness and explore pi. The project has consumed approximately 50,000 hours over 27 years. Prior to law school, Tim was a journalist and investigative reporter with a special interest in the administration of California’s tidelands.
His other interests include jazz, the OK Corral gunfight, the Chumash Painted Cave and Sasquatch.
The Western Outlaw-Lawmen’s History Association has characterized his work with the OK Corral as “one of the most intensive investigations of the gunfight ever undertaken.” His theory of the event is based on the original eyewitness testimony as recorded at the time by a Tombstone court stenographer. Tim’s conclusions are quite opposite the presentations of movies and the popular myth. He has filmed it twice with detailed analysis and his work has been shown on public television. True West Magazine characterized his presentation and interpretation as credible.
His work with the Chumash Painted Cave identifies it as a map of the area’s food resources rather than inexplicable religious signs.
The Sasquatch Study was inspired by Dr. Melba Ketchum’s Sasquatch Genome DNA Project. She concluded Sasquatch were a mutation occurring just over 13,000 years ago. Using her work as a baseline and the Painted Cave as a spring board, Tim has concluded Sasquatch were mutated as a result of the Glacier Peak eruption. 13,100 years ago when First Nation people were gathered for a Potlatch at the Nookachamps Basin (Wasington State). They would have been trapped for weeks and perhaps months in the surrounding hills by lava lahars inundating the Basin as well as the Skagit and Stilliquamish Rivers which surround the Basin. An enforced limited diet would have almost certainly have included the abundant larva of the Pine Bark Beetle. The bacteria in the larva contain working capabilities of Horizontal Gene Transfer. HGT capability consists of exchanging DNA with another living cell, plant or animal. Such a large number of people almost certainly did what comes naturally. Combined with excess amount of Tryptophan and Sulphur from the lahars, these unusual set of circumstances have the appearance of dynamic interference and mutation of dna in the blastulate stage of embryonic evolution. Tim’s conclusion is that the remarkable physical abilities reported by observers are the result of Sasquatch having a skeleton of cartilage rather than bone. This apparently is the result of excess trypytophan suppressing the normal genetic sequence of bone formation while excess sulphur excited the continued growth and formation of the cartilage skeleton every embryo already starts with. Tim’s work is original and a first logical explanation of Sasquatch.
In 2004, the Statistical Laboratory at University California Santa Barbara tested Tim with 100 flips of a coin. He successfully predicted and found a precise .04166…. flat bet advantage. The Lab then repeated the experiment with 100 “coin flips” from a random number generator. Again, he successfully predicted and found a precise .04166…. flat bet advantage.
On March 14, 2006, the Buffalo Evening News published an article in which their reporter tested him with a random number generator. He successfully predicted the random outcomes of electronic card turnovers with a .16666 flat-bet advantage.
In the spring of 2017, at the Cliff Room on the Mesa in Santa Barbara, Ritchie DeMaria, a reporter from Santa Barbara’s Independent weekly newspaper, initiated a series of experiments with dice using this theory of geometric probability. The dice were sent directly to Ritchie from the manufacturer. The series of sessions were concluded in January, 2018. The criterion for randomness was twice as stringent as required by the casino industry. The results were the averages of the twelve different “Razor Edge” cubes. To date, including Tim’s study with “Feather Edge” cubes from the same manufacturer, there are now ten thousand random trials open for inspection. The “Feather Edge” dice delivered a flat bet advantage close to the predicted .16666…. (.15+….). The “Razor Edge” dice delivered a flat bet advantage close to the predictable .11111…. (.105+….). The lopsided difference is due to structural differences. All dice are cut from a bar of composite material. The cut leaves two facets with four sharp edges and four facets with two sharp edges and two round molded edges. All dice start with this configuration. When the sharp edges are smoothed, they are “Feather Edge.” When they are left unsmoothed, they are “Razor Edge.” No matter how well balanced, “Razor Edge” dice deliver skewed results that are off by .33333…. of normal random expectations. Observant people have occasionally commented on this, but the Cliff Room trials are the first to formally test and confirm the phenomenon. Essentially, “Razor Edge” dice are “crooked.” Razor Edge cubes are also the most commonly used dice in a casino. This practice is inexplicably but knowingly allowed by various gaming commissions. The The Cliff Room trials also tested inexpensive board game dice that gave an advantage approximating six percent.